From the Scientific Literature

Developing Cell-Logic’s unique technology

Cell-Logic’s nutraceutical formulations and educational programmes are underpinned by both laboratory and clinical research.

With our primary focus on the science and clinical application of sulforaphane, a selection of relevant publications is found below.

Sulforaphane: Its “Coming of Age” as a Clinically Relevant Nutraceutical in the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Disease

Houghton CA. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2019;2019:2716870
Cell-Logic, Sulforaphane: Its “Coming of Age” as a Clinically Relevant Nutraceutical in the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Disease

Abstract: A growing awareness of the mechanisms by which phytochemicals can influence upstream endogenous cellular defence processes has led to intensified research into their potential relevance in the prevention and treatment of disease. Pharmaceutical medicine has historically looked to plants as sources of the starting materials for drug development; however, the focus of nutraceutical medicine is to retain the plant bioactive in as close to its native state as possible.

Sulforaphane and Other Nutrigenomic Nrf2 Activators: can the Clinician’s Expectation Be Matched by the Reality?

Houghton CA, Fassett RG, Coombes JS. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:7857186
Cell-Logic, Sulforaphane and Other Nutrigenomic Nrf2 Activators: can the Clinician’s Expectation Be Matched by the Reality?

Abstract: The recognition that food-derived nonnutrient molecules can modulate gene expression to influence intracellular molecular mechanisms has seen the emergence of the fields of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. The aim of this review is to describe the properties of nutrigenomic activators of transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), comparing the potential for sulforaphane and other phytochemicals to demonstrate clinical efficacy as complementary medicines.

EnduraCell® – Understanding Nutrigenomic Therapy in the ASD Patient

Cell-Logic Bulletin – Adapting Sulforaphane Doses using EnduraCell® 17th December, 2014
Cell-Logic, EnduraCell® – Understanding Nutrigenomic Therapy in the ASD Patient


The specific cause or causes of Autism Spectrum Disorder remain unknown, although there are several theories which try to explain its more frequent occurrence in recent years. For parents whose children are inexplicably affected by this condition, there is much distress accompanied by an endless search for treatments which will help their child.

Potential Avenues for therapy

One area which is now being explored by research scientists is associated with the way brain cells protect themselves from harm. As part of normal day-to-day function, human cells are exposed to a wide variety of toxic assaults. Most of these come from chemicals which are released when foods are digested; human cells may also be exposed to a large number of environmental chemicals. When defence mechanisms and repair processes function as they should, these potentially toxic compounds are handled in a way that they are safely eliminated from the body.

Sulforaphane treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

Kanwaljit Singh, Susan L. Connors, Eric A. Macklin et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2014;111(43):15550
Cell-Logic, Sulforaphane treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), encompassing impaired communication and social interaction, and repetitive stereotypic behavior and language, affects 1–2% of predominantly male individuals and is an enormous medical and economic problem for which there is no documented, mechanism-based treatment. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, daily oral administration for 18 wk of the phytochemical sulforaphane (derived from broccoli sprouts) to 29 young men with ASD substantially (and reversibly) improved behavior compared with 15 placebo recipients.

Sulforaphane: translational research from laboratory bench to clinic

Houghton CA, Fassett RG, Coombes JS. Nutr Rev. 2013 Nov;71(11):709-26
Cell-Logic, COVID-19 fallout

Abstract: Cruciferous vegetables are widely acknowledged to provide chemopreventive benefits in humans, but they are not generally consumed at levels that effect significant change in biomarkers of health. Because consumers have embraced the notion that dietary supplements may prevent disease, this review considers whether an appropriately validated sulforaphane-yielding broccoli sprout supplement may deliver clinical benefit. The crucifer-derived bioactive phytochemical sulforaphane is a significant inducer of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the transcription factor that activates the cell’s endogenous defenses via a battery of cytoprotective genes. For a broccoli sprout supplement to demonstrate bioactivity in vivo, it must retain both the sulforaphane-yielding precursor compound, glucoraphanin, and the activity of glucoraphanin’s intrinsic myrosinase enzyme. Many broccoli sprout supplements are myrosinase inactive, but current labeling does not reflect this. For the benefit of clinicians and consumers, this review summarizes the findings of in vitro studies and clinical trials, interpreting them in the context of clinical relevance. Standardization of sulforaphane nomenclature and assay protocols will be necessary to remove inconsistency and ambiguity in the labeling of currently available broccoli sprout products.

Cruciferous vegetables and thyroid functions

Cell-Logic Bulletin – Goitrogens and EnduraCell® 2013. Table adapted from: Tim O’Hare, Lung S. Wong. Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Gatton Research Station, LMB7, MS 437. Gatton 4343. Queensland Australia
Cell-Logic, Cruciferous vegetables and thyroid functions

Background Information

For many years, it has been known that compounds called goitrogens can interfere with the normal function of the thyroid gland, preventing the incorporation of iodine into the hormones the thyroid gland produces. Such goitrogenic compounds are found in certain cruciferous vegetables. This has led to widespread confusion because it has been assumed by many (including clinicians) that all cruciferous vegetables are equally goitrogenic. This is not the case.

How do Goitrogens form?

Progoitrins are precursors to the goitrins. In the case of broccoli, the progoitrins develop as the vegetable matures and are virtually non-detectable in the seed or sprout but increase as the vegetable grows to maturity. For the progoitrin to convert to the goitrin, it needs to be converted by activation of an enzyme known as myrosinase and found in the plant cell. If broccoli or the other crucifers are cooked, the myrosinase enzyme is destroyed and the goitrins aren’t produced.

Dietary broccoli sprouts protect against myocardial oxidative damage and cell death during ischemia-reperfusion

Cell-Logic, Dietary broccoli sprouts protect against myocardial oxidative damage and cell death during ischemia-reperfusion

Abstract: Cruciferous vegetables are known for antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. In the current study we asked whether dietary broccoli sprouts can protect the heart from ischemia-reperfusion. Rats were fed either control diet (sham and control groups) or a diet mixed with 2% dried broccoli sprouts for 10 days. After 10 days the isolated hearts were subjected to ischemia for 20 min and reperfusion for 2 h, and evaluated for cell death, oxidative damage, and Nrf2-regulated phase 2 enzyme activities. Broccoli sprouts feeding inhibited markers of necrosis (lactate dehydrogenase release) and apoptosis (caspase-3 activity) by 78-86%, and decreased indices of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and aconitase inactivation) by 82-116%. While broccoli sprouts increased total glutathione and activities of the phase 2 enzymes glutamate cysteine ligase and quinone reductase in liver, they did not affect these in ischemic-reperfused heart. While the mechanism is not clear, the results show that a relatively short dietary treatment with broccoli sprouts can strongly protect the heart against oxidative stress and cell death caused by ischemia-reperfusion.

Molecular basis for chemoprevention by sulforaphane: a comprehensive review

Juge N, Mithen RF, Traka M. Molecular basis for chemoprevention by sulforaphane: a comprehensive review. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 May;64(9):1105-27
Cell-Logic, Molecular basis for chemoprevention by sulforaphane: a comprehensive review

Abstract: The consumption of cruciferous vegetables has long been associated with a reduced risk in the occurrence of cancer at various sites, including the prostate, lung, breast and colon. This protective effect is attributed to isothiocyanates present in these vegetables, and sulforaphane (SF), present in broccoli, is by far the most extensively studied to uncover the mechanisms behind this chemoprotection. The major mechanism by which SF protects cells was traditionally thought to be through Nrf2-mediated induction of phase 2 detoxification enzymes that elevate cell defense against oxidative damage and promote the removal of carcinogens. However, it is becoming clear that there are multiple mechanisms activated in response to SF, including suppression of cytochrome P450 enzymes, induction of apoptotic pathways, suppression of cell cycle progression, inhibition of angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory activity. Moreover, these mechanisms seem to have some degree of interaction to synergistically afford chemoprevention.

Broccoli sprouts: An exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens

Fahey J, Zhang Y, Talalay P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. Vol. 94, pp. 10367–10372, September 1997
Cell-Logic, Broccoli sprouts: An exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens

Abstract: Induction of phase 2 detoxication enzymes [e.g., glutathione transferases, epoxide hydrolase, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, and glucuronosyltransferases] is a powerful strategy for achieving protection against carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and other forms of toxicity of electrophiles and reactive forms of oxygen. Since consumption of large quantities of fruit and vegetables is associated with a striking reduction in the risk of developing a variety of malignancies, it is of interest that a number of edible plants contain substantial quantities of compounds that regulate mammalian enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism. Thus, edible plants belonging to the family Cruciferae and genus Brassica (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) contain substantial quantities of isothiocyanates (mostly in the form of their glucosinolate precursors) some of which (e.g., sulforaphane or 4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate) are very potent inducers of phase 2 enzymes. Unexpectedly, 3-day-old sprouts of cultivars of certain crucifers including broccoli and cauliflower contain 10 –100 times higher levels of glucoraphanin (the glucosinolate of sulforaphane) than do the corresponding mature plants. Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates can be efficiently extracted from plants, without hydrolysis of glucosinolates by myrosinase, by homogenization in a mixture of equal volumes of dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and acetonitrile at 250°C. Extracts of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts (containing either glucoraphanin or sulforaphane as the principal enzyme inducer) were highly effective in reducing the incidence, multiplicity, and rate of development of mammary tumors in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-treated rats. Notably, sprouts of many broccoli cultivars contain negligible quantities of indole glucosinolates, which predominate in the mature vegetable and may give rise to degradation products (e.g., indole-3-carbinol) that can enhance tumorigenesis. Hence, small quantities of crucifer sprouts may protect against the risk of cancer as effectively as much larger quantities of mature vegetables of the same variety.

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